Why do we need smart cities?
Urbanization is a non-ending phenomenon.
Today, 54% of people worldwide live in cities, a proportion that's expected to reach 66% by 2050.
With population growth, urbanization will add another 2.5 billion people to cities over the next three decades.
Environmental, social, and economic sustainability is a must to keep pace with this rapid expansion taxing our cities' resources.
One hundred ninety-three countries agreed upon the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agenda in September 2015 at the United Nations.
But we all know how centralized decisions and actions can take time, and the clock is ticking.
The good news?
Citizens and local authorities are more agile in launching swift initiatives, and smart city technology is paramount to achieving these goals.
How is IoT technology making cities smarter and better?
Secure wireless connectivity and IoT technology are transforming traditional elements of city life - like streetlights - into next-generation intelligent lighting platforms with expanded capabilities.
The scope includes integrating solar power and connecting to a cloud-based central control system with other ecosystem assets.
These solutions shine far beyond simple lighting needs.
- High-power-embedded LEDs alert commuters about traffic issues, provide severe weather warnings, and provide a heads-up when fires arise.
- Streetlights can also detect free parking spaces and E.V. charging docks and alert drivers where to find an open spot via a mobile app. Charging might even be possible from the lamppost itself in some locations!
But how does it all fit together?
What makes smart cities successful
In addition to people, dwellings, commerce, and traditional urban infrastructure, there are four essential elements necessary for thriving smart cities:
- Pervasive wireless connectivity
- Open data
- Security you can trust in
- Flexible monetization schemes
Let's break it down.
What's the best wireless technology for smart cities?
The first building block of any smart city application is reliable, pervasive wireless connectivity.
While there's no one-size-fits-all, evolving Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies are well suited to most smart city applications for their cost efficiency and ubiquity.
These technologies include LTE Cat M, NB-IoT, LoRa, Bluetooth, and others that all contribute to the fabric of connected cities.
The advent of 5G technology is expected to be a watershed event that propels smart city technology into the mainstream and accelerates new deployments.
But only with a few more elements…
Opening the data vault
Historically, governments, enterprises, and individuals have held their data close to their pockets, sharing as little as possible with others.
Today, open data is redefining the digital city.
Privacy concerns and fear of security breaches have far outweighed the perceived value of sharing information (see Portland and privacy).
However, a key enabler of sustainable smart cities is that all participants in the complex ecosystem share information and combine it with contextual data analyzed in real time.
This is how informed decisions are made in real time.
Multiple sectors must cooperate to achieve sustainable outcomes by analyzing real-time contextual information shared among sector-specific information and operational technology (O.T.) systems.
Data management (and access to this information) represents the backbone of the digital city.
Stay with us. Here is what we mean.
Examples of smart cities
New York City
Below are helpful links to some of New York City's significant initiatives mentioned in the video above.
- The New York City Department of Transportation's Midtown in Motion is a congestion management system that has improved travel times on Midtown's avenues by 10%.
- The NYCx Challenges initiative from the NYC Mayor's Office of the Chief Technology Officer invites entrepreneurs, technologists, and tech professionals to participate in open competitions and propose bold ideas that solve real urban needs such as pollution, income inequality, and transport (site closed).
- LinkNYC provides free super-fast free Wi-Fi, phone calls, device charging, and a tablet to access city services, maps, and directions. It's a unique communications network replacing payphones across the Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island.
- Cyber NYC is the city's strategic investment to dominate cybersecurity. It aims to grow New York City's cybersecurity workforce, help companies drive innovation and build networks and community spaces.
- MyNYCHA mobile app and web portal allow public housing residents to manage services online. It addresses over 300 public developments across New York City. Launched in 2015, MyNYCHA is a free service that puts the repair process in residents' hands. Residents can submit, schedule, and manage work tickets online. They can also subscribe to alerts for outages in their developments, view inspection appointments, and pay their rent.
- Biking in New York City: read the July 2019 plan for cycling in the city.
- Automated water meters in NYC: Automated Meter Reading systems consist of small devices connected to individual water meters. They send daily readings to a computerized billing system.
- The My DEP Account lets New Yorkers track consumption from home. The system eliminates the need for a water meter reader to visit the premises. It allows the Department of Environmental Protection to monitor citywide consumption more closely and manage the city's water supply system more effectively.
- New York's data report - Open Data for All- provides free public data published by various local agencies. This tool opens data for people to make a difference in their communities—including educators, students, artists, builders, small business owners, advocates, reporters, and community board members. It also means open data for the 300,000 workers who make New York City safer, cleaner, and more equitable.
- More on the New York City Internet of Things strategy and IoT progress report (December 20 2021.)
Amsterdam Smart City
Amsterdam is a shining example of a well-connected smart city reaping the rewards of opening the data vault. The Smart City initiative began in 2009 and included over 170 projects.
It also shares traffic and transportation data with interested parties, such as developers, who then create mapping apps connected to the city's transport systems.
Now, navigating the city is a snap for all.
The city built autonomous delivery boats called 'roboats' to keep things moving in a timely fashion.
It also supported a floating village of houses, solving the city's overcrowding problem with a sustainable, energy-efficient alternative. Power is generated within communities, and homes receive water straight from the river and filter it within their tanks.
None of this is possible without shared data.
City data is available online for all.
Here is another example.
Antwerp and the city of things
Antwerp is a partner in the E.U.'s CITADEL project. It explores the role of technology in a collaborative government.
The city is also about to create Europe's largest smart zone.
Copenhagen Smart City
Copenhagen is known as one of the smartest cities in the world and mobilizes expertise worldwide.
The city is leveraging open data to collaborate with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to develop an innovative intelligent bike system.
Embedded with sensors that provide real-time information to riders and administrators, data is shared to monitor and manage air quality and traffic congestion.
While data sharing is essential, opening the vault also expands the cyber-attack surface area.
So, how do we keep data private from the masses while sharing it among stakeholders?
Can smart cities be secured and trusted?
In digital cities, connected cameras, intelligent road systems, and public safety monitoring systems can provide an added layer of protection and emergency support to aid citizens when needed.
- But what about protecting smart cities themselves from vulnerabilities?
- How can we defend against hacking, cyber-attacks, and data theft?
- In cities where multiple participants share information, how do we trust that participants are who they say they are?
- And how do we know the data they report is true and accurate?
The answers lie in physical data vaults, strong authentication, and I.D. management solutions.
Smart cities can only work if we can trust them.
Four core security objectives for smart city solutions
All ecosystem partners - governments, enterprises, software providers, device manufacturers, energy providers, and network service providers - must do their part and integrate solutions that abide by four core security objectives:
- Availability: Without actionable, real-time, and reliable data access, the smart city can't thrive. How information is collected, distilled, and shared is critical, and security solutions must avoid adverse effects on availability.
- Integrity: Smart cities depend on reliable and accurate data. Measures must be taken to ensure that data is accurate and free from manipulation.
- Confidentiality: Some of the collected, stored, and analyzed data will include sensitive details about consumers. Steps must be taken to prevent unauthorized disclosure of sensitive information.
- Accountability: Users of a system must be responsible for their actions. Their interactions with sensitive systems should be logged and associated with a specific user. These logs should be difficult to forge and have reliable integrity protection.
Strong authentication and I.D. management solutions must be integrated into the ecosystem to ensure data is shared only with authorized parties to achieve these core security objectives.
The solutions also protect backend systems from intrusion and hacking.
Thankfully, legislation is being introduced to address threats and potential market failure due to growing digital security concerns.
Like the IoT Cybersecurity Improvement Act in the U.S., signed on December 4 2020, or the U.K. IoT security law (not passed yet in June 2021), legislation will help establish minimum security requirements for connected devices.
Show me the Money: how do we monetize smart cities?
Data is the new oil in the age of IoT and smart cities.
For smart cities to thrive, we must establish sustainable commerce models that facilitate the success of all ecosystem players.
The software must be woven into the fabric of IoT solutions to benefit all ecosystem contributors; this includes OEMs, developers, integrators, governments, etc.
Each member's intellectual property needs to be valued and rewarded.
Subscription software capabilities enable new business models that allow each contributor to extract value from their contribution to the ecosystem.
Subscription-based models offer a way to monetize hardware and software to build smart infrastructures and spread out expenses, moving away from substantial one-time CAPEX spending.
- For example, expensive medical equipment like MRI scanners can be sold on a cost-per-scan basis rather than as a one-time upfront expense for hospitals. This creates a win-win situation for hospitals and suppliers alike.
- And one day soon, cities will offer affordable subscriptions to fleets of vehicles shared between owners who may choose from an array of custom options. This move could radically reduce traffic and optimize traffic patterns and ride-sharing.
As urban areas continue to expand and grow, smart city technology is developing, enhancing sustainability and better serving humanity.
By leveraging pervasive connectivity, open data, end-to-end security, and software monetization solutions, we can align evolving smart city needs for a much-improved experience for all ecosystem partners.
More resources on smart cities
- Top 50 Smart City Governments in 2021 (Eden Strategy Institute - March 31 2021)
- Top 10 smart cities in the world: London, New York, Paris, Tokyo, Reykjavik, Copenhagen, Berlin, Amsterdam, Singapore, and Hong Kong. Forbes July 8 2020
- Top 10 smart cities in the United States: New York, Chicago, Washington, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Boston, Dallas, San Diego, Miami, and Houston. IESE business school. Cities in motion 2020.
- The top 3 smart cities in Canada (Cities in motion - October 2020) are Toronto, Montreal, and Ottawa.
- India's Smart Cities Mission: The Indian Government's program for smart city development
- Smart cities in India: India's smart cities challenge nominees
- Is Singapore the world's smartest city? by Thales
- The European innovation partnership on smart cities and communities (the European Commission)
- Six essential technologies make smart cities: smart energy, transportation, data, infrastructure, mobility, and devices. TechRepublic August 2016
- Impact of the Internet of things on smart cities KPMG May 2019
Intelligent infrastructure pilot launched in Texas (March 11 2021)
- Seven ways cities are getting smarter by Thales
- The pandemic accelerates the rise of digital cities (April 1 2021)
- Sidewalk Labs in Toronto: what's next? (May 2020)
- Smart ports: Examples around the world
What does "smart grid" mean?
IoT regulations (July 2021)
Now it's your turn
Indeed, we can't claim to list all the critical concepts and issues related to smart cities and the IoT and those that will emerge in the years to come.
Can you fill in some of the gaps?
If you've something to say on smart cities, share best practices, have a question to ask, or have found this article useful, please leave a comment in the box below.
We'd also welcome suggestions on improving it or proposals for future papers.
We look forward to hearing from you.
Contact a local representative for more information on building trusted, smart city solutions.